What is Sewage treatment Plant (STP)
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage. The separation and draining of household waste into greywater and blackwater is becoming more common in the developed world.
Physical, chemical, and biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater that is safe enough for release into the environment
Greywater is water generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, and can be reused more readily. Blackwater contains human waste.
Effect Of Water Pollution
Sewage is a major carrier of disease (from human wastes) and toxins (from industrial wastes). The safe treatment of sewage is thus crucial to the health of any community.
Water pollution is very harmful to humans, animals and water life. The effects can be catastrophic, depending on the kind of chemicals, concentrations of the pollutants and where there are polluted. Below is the major effects of water pollution:
- Destruction of ecosystems
- Death of aquatic animals
- Disruption of food-chains
The basic principle of the working of a biological treatment plant is decomposition of the raw sewage. This process is done by aerating the sewage chamber with fresh air. The aerobic bacteria survive on this fresh air and decompose the raw sewage which can be disposed off in the sea.
How sewage treatment plant works?
Using internal mechanisms, a sewage treatment plant works by breaking down solid waste to produce a cleaner, more environmentally friendly effluent.
Wastewater and sewage are supplied to the primary tank, where the solids and liquids disperse. The resulting liquor flows into the biozone chamber. In the chamber, a pump airs the waste and encourages friendly bacteria to condense the organic matter. This breaks down and purifies the result.
As it leaves the final waste chamber, the waste left over is 95% clean and ready for dispersal into local ditches or soakaway systems, subject to consent from the relevant environmental agency.