Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

What is an effluent treatment plant (ETP) :

Water as we all know is a crucial element for life and it cannot be wasted. Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat wastewater that is produced as a by-product of industrial or commercial activities and produces a liquid effluent suitable for circulation into the process areas.

ETP stands for Effluent Treatment Plant. It is a system that removes toxic and non-toxic material from water and making it usable for various purposes. An ETP is a plant where the treatment of industrial effluents and waste waters is done. The ETP plants are used widely in industrial sector, for example, pharmaceutical industry, to remove the effluents from the bulk drugs.

Source of Industrial Wastewater:-

Wastewater generated from agricultural and food operations is biodegradable and non-toxic, but has high concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solids.
Vegetable washing generates waters with high loads of particulate matter and some dissolved organic matter.

Effluent from the pulp and paper industry is generally high in suspended solids and BOD. Plants that bleach wood pulp for paper making may generate chloroform, dioxins, furans, phenols and chemical oxygen demand (COD).
Increased BOD or COD loadings, as well as organic pollutants, may require biological treatment such as activated sludge or up flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. For mills with high inorganic loadings like salt, tertiary treatments may be required, either general membrane treatments like ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis.

Waste waters can be contaminated by feedstock materials, by-products, product material in soluble or particulate form. Treatment facilities that do not need control of their effluent typically opt for a type of aerobic treatment, i.e. aerated lagoons.

The production of iron from its ores involves powerful reduction reactions in blast furnaces. Cooling waters are inevitably contaminated with products especially ammonia and cyanide.


Contamination of waste streams includes gasification products such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, cyanide, ammonia, phenols, cresols together with a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Power plants are a major source of industrial wastewater. Many of these plants discharge wastewater with significant levels of metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium and chromium as well as arsenic, selenium and nitrogen compounds.

Need Of ETP:

Water is basic necessity of life used for many purposes, one of which is Industrial use. Industries generally pay heavy taxes for the raw water. But water once get used gets contaminated so it should be well treated so it can satisfy the proper prerequisites of usage in the plant. Thus an effluent treatment plant is always laid down in any industrial plant.

ETP Plant Uses/Applications:

Electroplating industries , Textile Industries , Distilleries , Pharmacy Industries , Chemical Industries , Paper Industries , Tannery Industries , Dye & Dye Intermediaries , Edible Oil Refineries , Electroplating Industries

Process Flow Diagram :-

Effluent Treatment Plant Key Features:

  • Fully Customized Designed System
  • Lowest Operation & Maintenance Cost.
  • Operator Friendly
  • Easy to Upgrade
  • Technology approved by PCB. ( Pollution Control Board).
  • Reducing operating cost

Benefits/Advantage of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) :

  • Totally integrated zero discharge system.
  • By Product is marketable commodity in most of the cases.
  • Complete use of condensate water.
  • Compact plant requires very less space.
  • No Scaling & Froth formation in evaporator.
  • User friendly plant.